パトリック・ゲデスは、GISの基礎となるような考え方（Regional Survey、Outlook Tower、know your region and you can understand the worldなど）を提唱し、どれも現代においてもあらゆる課題に適用できる考え方だと思います。フィールドワークの重要性にも通じるところがありますね。
現在、世界的な地球環境保全の取り組みである国連気候変動枠組条約締約国会議（COP）、京都議定書締約国会合（CMP）、パリ協定締約国会合（CMA）などが開催されています。それらに繋がる最初の国連会議が1992年にリオデジャネイロで開催されました。それ以来、「持続可能性／サステナビリティ」の課題に対する統合的対応の創出における市民参加への「ローカルアジェンダ21」アプローチが国際的に広がっています。持続可能な開発を意図する一般的な呼びかけである「Think Global、Act Local」は、このパトリック・ゲデスの著書「Cities in Evolution」に起因していることは忘れてはいけないことです。
In Germany, there are few private cram schools for children and club activities organized and routinely run by the school. So what do children do after school class? By the way, it is common for elementary schools in Bavaria to finish classes in the morning. The answer is that they do homework and play with friends, or participate in local sports clubs and orchestras. Of course, there is also a circle activity (called Arbeitsgemeinschaften) organized by the school side, but it takes 1-2 hours about 1-2 days a week, and it is decided whether it will be held every year. Therefore, as we can see from the school structure and how children spend their weekdays, it can be said that, depending on the viewpoint, this environment is fostering active citizenship.
In Germany, there is a legal personality established by the Civil Code called eingetragener Verein. Generally called e.V. for short. There are many different organizations with e.V. corporations. For example, sports clubs such as soccer clubs, music activity organizations such as brass bands and orchestras, international exchange organizations, agricultural associations, forest associations, and forest kindergartens are also e.V. Regardless of the size of the organization, organizations that include Germany as a whole, such as the Renewable Energy Federation, also have e.V. legal entities.
The total number of e.V.s in Germany is approximately five times that of around 1970, and now it is statistically estimated that about 36 million young people and adults are participating in at least one organization. The number of e.V. registered by 2017 has exceeded 630,000. According to a survey by a major e.V. whose mission is to solve problems related to education and scientific innovation in Germany, about 15% of them are sports clubs, more than a quarter of which were established before World War II. The relatively newly established organization is designed to protect the environment and nature, and to educate. In contrast to traditional bowling and chorus clubs, the number of organizations that are steadily increasing are financial support organizations such as schools and children’s orchestras. The number of members is increasing in about one third of all organizations, and the number of members is decreasing is less than a quarter. In Germany, civic activities seem to be active and active throughout the country, but the establishment of civic activities organizations is often in urban areas with a large population, and it is declining in rural areas where social importance is high. From this study, social issues include improving the health and education of rural people.
Each European country has its own national laws and standards for the establishment of legal organizations and legal forms. For example, France has Paris, the largest city in Europe. In Paris, there is a citizen-participation-type initiative that allows citizens to plan local services, participate in favorite activities, and support activities by voting to obtain an administrative budget with the aim of better living. This project, which has been undertaken since 2014, accounts for 5% of the 18% of the city’s annual budget of 8 billion euros (approximately 1 trillion yen), and is determined by the citizens of Paris. Citizen’s participation is made public by this system that citizens themselves propose ideas, examine by citizen’s vote, and implement implemented measures that are implemented with the allocated budget. Citizens propose ideas, review by citizens’ voting, implement with allocated budget, and publicize the implemented activities, this system promotes the community development with citizen participation. This citizen-participation budget initiatives are also being implemented in large German cities such as Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne and Frankfurt.